Foods to eat while pregnant and breastfeeding

The four food groups: advice on servings and nutrients for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Table gives a description of each food group, advice on the recommended number of servings from each food group, serving sizes for each food group, and a broad indication of the main nutrients supplied by each food group. Not all of the foods within each group will contain all these nutrients. Three-day meal plans have also been provided as examples of how to achieve these guidelines, including the recommended food and nutrient intakes.

pregnant

Milk and milk products (milk, cheese, yoghurt) and suitable alternatives

Advice Serving size examples Nutrients provided
Pregnant and breastfeeding women
Eat at least three servings per day (choose low or reduced-fat options)
1 large glass milk(250ml)
1 pottle yoghurt(150g)
2 slices cheese(40g)
2 scoops ice cream(140g)
1 large glass calcium-fortified soy milk(250ml)
Protein Fats: higher proportion of saturated than poly- or monounsaturated fats especially in full-fat products Energy Vitamins: riboflavin, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D Minerals: especially calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iodine

Lean meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, legumes, nuts and seeds

Advice Serving size examples Nutrients provided
Pregnant and breastfeeding women
Eat at least two servings per day.
2 slices cooked meat (approximately
100g)
¾ cup mince or casserole (195g)
1 egg (50g)
1 medium fillet of fish cooked (100g)
¾ cup cooked dried beans, peas or lentils (135g)
2 drumsticks or 1 chicken leg (110g)
½ cup nuts or seeds
Protein Fats: both visible and marbled in meat (mostly saturated fat, cholesterol); mostly unsaturated fats in seafood, nuts and seeds Carbohydrates: mainly legumes (dried peas and beans) Energy Vitamins: B12, niacin, thiamin Minerals: iron, zinc, magnesium, copper, potassium, phosphorus, selenium Iodine: particularly in seafood and eggs

Vegetables and fruit (includes fresh, frozen, canned and dried)

Advice Serving size examples Nutrients provided
Pregnant and breastfeeding women
Eat at least six servings per day;
at least four servings of vegetables and
at least two servings of fruit.
Only one serving of juice or one serving
of dried fruit counts towards the total
number of servings for the day.
Vegetables
1 medium potato, sweet potato or pumpkin, taro, tapioca, carrot, green beans (135 g)
½ cup cooked vegetable (eg, water cress, silverbeet, parengo, corn, broccoli (50–80g))
½ cup salad or mixed vegetables (60 g)
1 tomato (80 g)
Fruit
1 apple, pear, banana or orange (130 g)
2 small apricots or plums (100 g)
½ cup fresh fruit salad
½ cup stewed fruit (fresh, frozen or canned) (135 g)
1 cup fruit juice (250 ml)
2 tablespoons dried fruit
Energy Carbohydrates Dietary fibre Vitamins: especially folate, vitamin A (yellow and green vegetables), vitamin C (dark green leafy vegetables and most fruit, potatoes) Minerals: magnesium, potassium

Breads and cereals (eg, breads, breakfast cereals, grains, rice and pasta) preferably wholegrain

Advice Serving size examples Nutrients provided
Pregnant women
Eat at least six servings per day (choose wholegrain breads and cereals).
Breastfeeding women
Eat at least seven servings per day
(choose wholegrain breads and cereals).
1 bread roll(50g)
1 muffin(80g)
1 medium slice bread(26g)
1 cup cornflakes
½ cup muesli(55g)
½ cup cooked porridge(130g)
1 cup cooked pasta(150g)
1 cup cooked rice(150g)
1 cup cassava or tapioca(150g)
2 plain sweet biscuits(14g)
Energy Carbohydrates Dietary fibre Vitamins: vitamins from the B group (except B12), vitamin E Minerals (particularly in wholegrain breads and cereals): magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium Protein

Three-day meal plans. Foods to eat while pregnant

This three-day meal plan has been analysed for major nutrients and meets the needs of a healthy pregnant female doing light to moderate exercise. The purpose of the meal plan is to determine food group serving recommendations for the guidelines and is not intended to be used as a dietary regimen for individuals. Energy – 2382 kilocalories per day.

Day 1Day 2Day 3
Breakfast
Apricots, dried (1/4 cup)
Weet-Bix (2)
Trim milk (125 ml)
Fruit yoghurt (1 pottle)
Currant toast (2 slices)
Margarine – low salt (2
teaspoons)
Marmalade (2 teaspoons)
Breakfast
Boiled egg (1)
Wholegrain toast (2 slices)
Margarine – low salt
(2 teaspoons)
Yeast spread (1 teaspoon)
Orange
Hot milk drink (200 ml)
Breakfast
Weet-Bix (2)
Trim milk (125 ml)
Banana
Wholegrain toast (2 slices)
Margarine – low salt
(2 teaspoons)
Marmalade (2 teaspoons)
Orange juice (200 ml)
Mid-morning
Cheese, cheddar (1 slice)
Water crackers (3)
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Mid-morning
Fruitcake (1 slice) (45 g)
Coffee (1 teaspoon)
Trim milk (30 ml)
Mid-morning
Water crackers (3)
Cottage cheese (1 tablespoon)
Glass of water
Lunch
Wholegrain bread roll (1)
Margarine – low salt
(1 teaspoon)
Roast beef (2 slices cooked thoroughly) (100 g)
Tomato (4 slices)
Lettuce (2 leaves)
Homemade pumpkin soup
(1 cup)
Orange
Glass of water
Lunch
Wholegrain bread (4 slices)
Lettuce (2 leaves)
Tomato (4 slices)
Avocado (½)
Tuna (100 g)
Fruit yoghurt (1 pottle)
Apple juice (200 ml)
Lunch
Wholegrain pita bread
(2 pockets)
Lamb (2 slices cooked thoroughly) (100 g)
Lettuce (4 leaves)
Tomato (1)
Apple
Strawberry-flavoured milk
(200 ml)
Mid-afternoon
English muffin
Margarine – low salt
(1 teaspoon)
Nuts – raw, unsalted (30 g)
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Mid-afternoon
Smoothie (200 ml trim milk)
½ cup berries, 1 banana
Glass of water
Mid-afternoon
Orange (1)
Fruit bun
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Dinner
Chicken (no skin, cooked thoroughly) (150 g)
Potato, baked (1 large)
Broccoli (½ cup)
Carrots (½ cup)
Silver beet (½ cup)
Banana
Ice cream (1 scoop)
Glass of juice (200 ml)
Dinner
Spaghetti (1 cup) (150 g)
Tomato and meat sauce* (1 cup)
Spinach salad (1 cup
– spinach, tomato, carrots,
vinaigrette)
Cauliflower (½ cup)
Custard pudding (¾ cup)
Canned peaches (½ cup)
Glass of water
Dinner
Steak and kidney stew (1 cup. cooked thoroughly)
Baked ku ̄ mara (1)
Peas (½ cup)
Green beans (½ cup)
Pumpkin (1 piece)
Kiwifruit (1)
Glass of water
Supper
Wholegrain bread (1 slice)
Peanut butter (1 teaspoon)
Hot milk drink (200 ml)
Supper
Raisin and bran loaf (1 slice)
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Supper
Fruit yoghurt (1 pottle)
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)

Three-day meal plans. Foods to eat while breastfeeding

This three-day meal plan has been analysed for major nutrients and meets the needs of a healthy breastfeeding female doing light to moderate exercise. The purpose of the meal plan is to determine serving recommendations for the guidelines and is not intended to be used as a dietary regimen for individuals. Energy – 2584 kilocalories per day.

Day 1Day 2Day 3
Breakfast
Muesli, non-toasted (½ cup)
Trim milk (125 ml)
Stewed apple (½ cup)
Wholegrain toast (2 slices)
Margarine – low salt
(2 teaspoons)
Yeast spread (1 teaspoon)
Apple and orange juice
(250 ml)
Breakfast
Wholegrain toast (2 slices)
Margarine – low salt
(2 teaspoons)
Poached egg (1)
Jam (1 teaspoon)
Muesli, non-toasted (1 cup)
Trim milk (100 ml)
Glass of water
Breakfast
Sultanas (2 Tablespoons)
Weet-Bix (2)
Trim milk (125 ml)
Wholegrain toast (1 slice)
Margarine – low salt
(1 teaspoon)
Marmalade (1 teaspoon)
Apple and orange juice
(250 ml)
Mid-morning
Fruitcake (1 slice) (40 g)
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Mid-morning
High-fibre biscuits (2)
Banana
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Mid-morning
Fruit bun (1)
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Lunch
Pumpkin soup (1 cup)
Cheese toastie
Edam cheese (2 slices) (40 g)
Wholegrain toast (2 slices)
Fruit yoghurt (1 pottle)
Orange
Lunch
Wholegrain bread (4 slices)
Margarine – low salt
(2 teaspoons)
Roast beef (2 slices) (100 g)
Lettuce (2 leaves), tomato,
carrot, ½ avocado
Fruit yoghurt (1 pottle)
Glass of water
Lunch
Lasagne (300 g)
Lettuce (2 leaves)
Tomato (1)
Spring onion (1)
Beetroot (½ cup)
Dressing
Glass of water
Mid-afternoon
Water crackers (4)
Cottage cheese (15 g)
Tomato (4 slices)
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Mid-afternoon
Cheese (1 slice) (20 g)
Apple (1)
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Mid-afternoon
Orange (1)
Hot drink
Trim milk (30 ml)
Dinner
Chicken and vegetable stir fry
(1 cup)
White rice (1 cup)
Broccoli (½ cup)
Carrots (½ cup)
Fresh fruit salad (1 bowl)
Ice cream (1 scoop) (70 g)
Glass of water
Dinner
Fish, crumbed (150 g)
Peas (½ cup)
Pumpkin (½ cup)
Baked potato (1 large)
Broccoli (½ cup)
Pears, canned (½ cup drained)
Orange juice (250 ml)
Dinner
Beef – grilled (120 g)
Kumara, baked (1 piece)
Green beans (½ cup)
Carrots (½ cup)
Apple crumble (½ cup) (115 g)
Custard (100 ml)
Glass of water
Supper
Wholegrain bread (1 slice)
Margarine – low salt
(1 teaspoon)
Peanut butter (1 teaspoon)
Trim milk (250 ml)
Banana
Supper
Wholegrain bread (1 slice)
Margarine (1 teaspoon)
Tomato (1)
Glass of water
Supper
Banana
Hot milk drink (250 ml)